In the Old Testament, Melchizedek, who was both a priest and king (Genesis 14:18; Hebrews 7:1-4), offered a sacrifice of bread and wine. Here let it be remarked at the outset, that the Holy Eucharist does not per se constitute a person in the state of grace as do the sacraments of the dead (baptism and penance), but presupposes such a state. Likewise, the very term "Eucharist" (from the Greek eucharistia) reflects the centrality of thanksgiving. The Jews, moreover, were accustomed even the day before the fourteenth of Nisan to get rid of all the leaven which chanced to be in their dwellings, that so they might from that time on partake exclusively of the so-called mazzoth as bread. Yet far from repudiating this construction as a gross misunderstanding, Christ repeated them in a most solemn manner, in the text quoted above (John, vi, 54 sqq.). St. Thomas quotes St. Cyril in emphasizing faith as a basis for understanding (III 75 1). True it is that the Scriptural words “Body of Christ” not unfrequently have the meaning of “Church“, which is called the mystical Body of Christ, a figure easily and always discernible as such from the text or context (cf. If the eye nevertheless seems to behold bread and wine, this is to be attributed to an optical illusion alone. The position of the Church in this regard may be readily determined from the Council of Constance (1414-1418). And without further ado He allowed these Disciples to go their way (John, vi, 62 sqq.). Scripture and Tradition, with which is also bound up the infallible magisterium of the Church. (a) In the early Christian Era the Peputians, Collyridians, and Montanists attributed priestly powers even to women (cf. 1328 The inexhaustible richness of this sacrament is … (b) The second problem arises from the Totality of Presence, which means that Christ in His entirety is present in the whole of the Host and in each smallest part thereof, as the spiritual soul is present in the human body [see above, (2)]. Holy Communion may be received under one kind (the Sacred Host or the Precious Blood alone), or under both kinds (both the Sacred Host and the Precious Blood). If then she practices idolatry by the adoration of mere bread and wine, this crime must be laid to the charge of the God-man Himself.  The connection between that sign and the Eucharist is seen as having been made both in John 6 and also in the version of the Lord's Prayer in the Gospel of Luke: where the version in the Gospel of Matthew speaks of epiousios bread, the Lucan version speaks of "bread for each day", interpreted as a reminiscence of Exodus 16:19–21, which recounts that the manna was gathered in amounts sufficient only for a single day. The Council of Trent opposed this teaching of Luther, and not only confirmed anew the existence of a “special priesthood” (Sess. , The General Instruction of the Roman Missal mentions a "Communion-plate for the Communion of the faithful", distinct from the paten, and speaks of its use in relation to the administration of Communion by intinction, in which receiving Communion directly in the mouth is obligatory. In the next chapter, he draws the association we find in the Didache and elsewhere, the need for purity in receiving the Eucharist. xiv). Even in his time Cyril of Jerusalem insisted just as strongly as did Ambrose and Augustine on an attitude of adoration and homage during Holy Communion (cf. As regards the philosophical possibility of the accidents existing without their substance, the older school drew a fine distinction between modal and absolute accidents. A person should examine himself, and so eat the bread and drink the cup. Since in the natural order of events each body is restricted to one position in space (unilocatio), so that before the law proof of an alibi immediately frees a person from the suspicion of crime, multilocation without further question belongs to the supernatural order. The Precious Blood was in early times received directly from the Chalice, but in Rome the practice after the eighth century, was to receive it through a small tube (fistula); at present this is observed only in the pope’s Mass. After the Communion of the laity under the species of wine had been abolished, the deacon’s powers were more and more restricted. myst. "Regularly on each Sabbath day this bread shall be set out afresh before the Lord, offered on the part of the Israelites by an everlasting agreement. But that bread is bread before the words of the Sacraments; where the consecration has entered in, the bread becomes the Flesh of Christ" (The Sacraments, 333/339-397 A.D. v.2,1339,1340). The investigation into the documents of the Church maintains an easier position in the early Christian Era the,... And this also has been made known, that certain deacons now touch Eucharist! Be received either on the first and principal effect of the feast, sublime hymns, as! Which alone possessed worth about a year, viz Council of Trent ( Sess is.: `` §1 supposed to designate the Church as the source and the double accounts... Performed on the other hand, the sacrament of the Catholic Church, the even! 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