why is dual slope method preferred over ramp techniques?

slump will work. 12. Controlled Adjustable Ramp Signal Generator and Method" by John S. Fawkes, et al., and commonly assigned to the assignee of this application. 2 by a hatched area. 3. Imitate natureThe native vegetation usually found at the shoreline strengthens its structural integrity and prevents the land from breaking apart. 1250.02 Roadway Cross Slope 1250.02(1) Lanes The cross slope on tangents and curves is a main element in roadway design. An output of the filter circuit 30 is in turn connected via line 31 to an input of a drive amplifier 32 whose output is coupled to an input of an erase or bias recording magnetic head circuit 34, as it is well known in the art, for example from the above-indicated Catalog, and as it is described in more detail in the cross-referenced patent application. 1. From the foregoing description it follows that any convenient number of increments such as k to m or m' to k' may be provided by the circuit of the present invention by detecting a corresponding number of predetermined ramp signal magnitudes provided by the integrator and by utilizing a corresponding number of parallel resistors such as 71, 72 and switches such as 73, 74, respectively. ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST. 4. Alternatively, a microprocessor-controlled detection system may be provided to control the respective switches 73, 74. ;ASSIGNOR:AMPEX CORPORATION A CORPORATION OF CALIFORNIA;REEL/FRAME:006334/0371, Free format text: However, in some applications, for example when recording audio signals in video tape recorders, it is also required to obtain an optimum erase or bias signal level within a relatively short time corresponding to one video field or frame interval, that is, within 30 milliseconds or less to facilitate editing. As a result a further resistor 72 is connected in parallel with resistors 23, 71 thus further decreasing the input resistance and thereby further shortening the time constant RC of the integrator 40. The output 27 of integrator 40 is coupled to an input of a chopper 28 whose output is coupled via line 29 to an input of a filter circuit 30. On the other hand the remaining sections l and m of the characteristic of FIG. The incrementally sloping ramp characteristic of FIG. 1. Alternatively, the slope of ramp 22 may be determined empirically by determining the time t ref for the ramp to proceed from 0 to V ref, since V ref is known. Consequently a further increased slope of the ramp characteristic at output 27 from integrator 40 is obtained as shown by segment m in FIG. Ramp Method • Used in the case of flat or slightly undulating areas. As verbs the difference between ramp and slope is that ramp is to behave violently; to rage while slope is (label) to … ;ASSIGNOR:AMPEX CORPORATION A CORPORATION OF CALIFORNIA;REEL/FRAME:006334/0371, ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:AMPEX SYSTEMS CORPORATION, A DE CORPORATION;REEL/FRAME:007456/0224, PATENT EXPIRED DUE TO NONPAYMENT OF MAINTENANCE FEES UNDER 37 CFR 1.362, Generator of drive signals for transistors connected in a half-bridge configuration, Charge balanced ramp with improved signal linearity, Current injected ramp with reduced recovery time background of the invention, Digital ramp generator with output power level controller, Voltage-controlled dual-slope square and triangular waveform generator, Storage device having write signal with multiple-slope data transition, CIRCUIT ARRANGEMENT FOR RECOVERY OF DATA CONTAINING IN BINARY DATA SIGNALS, High energy ignition generator, particularly for gas turbine, Oscillator having output frequency linearly related to resistance, High precision triangular waveform generator, Improvements in electrical signal function generators, Compander with control signal logarithmically related to the instantaneous rms value of the input signal, Dynamic noise filter having means for varying cutoff point, Compressors, expanders and noise reduction systems, Companding noise reduction system with simultaneous encode and decode, Rotary head type magnetic video recording and reproducing system, Compander noise reduction method and apparatus, Playback system utilizing variable delay and speed control means for flutter and wowcompensation, Automatic gain control system for optical disk unit, Information recording device for video and sound, Dynamic equalizer circuits having a light dependent cell for producing a relatively constant apparent loudness effect, Signal processing for digital optical disc players, High density information recording and reproducing system, Disc recording/reproducing apparatus having two constant linear velocities with controlled step switching between the two, Lapse for failure to pay maintenance fees, Expired due to failure to pay maintenance fee, Information on status: patent discontinuation. 2. Each amplifier 77, 78 has a non-inverting input 79, 80 connected to the output 27 of the integrating operational amplifier 40. ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:FAWKES, JOHN S.;REEL/FRAME:003984/0936, Owner name: at which the above-indicated voltage levels are obtained. 3 which then represents a fixed Vref utilized for that particular application. The small deviation that is present is likely a consequence of the (small) effect of the ramps on [Cl −] i.) a detecting means coupled to detect in succession predetermined magnitudes of said ramp signal and to apply respective control signals in response to each said magnitude obtained by said ramp signal to activate said switch means in said succession. Our results showed significant effect of HT, handling directions and slope on compression and shear force of the lumbar spine (p < 0.001). 3 by the circuit of the present invention, the respective values R1, R2 of resistors 15, 16 may be selected as being different, for example having a ratio 1:2, 2:3, etc. The circuit of claim 4 wherein respective resistance values between said first and said output terminal and between said second and said output terminal of said resistive voltage divider means are selected equal to obtain a time interval necessary for ramping-up equal to that which is necessary for ramping-down said ramp signal. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.shaw.2020.05.001. FIG. The present invention relates to a circuit and method for generating a ramp signal having an incrementally changing slope and it is particularly useful for ramping bias or erase signals utilized for magnetic recording. As it is seen from FIG. 4 shows the preferred embodiment of a circuit for generating a ramp signal in accordance with the present invention. However, as distinct from the circuit of the cross-referenced application, the presently described circuit of FIG. Finding the exact slope on a graph comes down to how well you know how to utilize the specific tools you are using. This study aimed to investigate the effects of handling types (HTs) and slope on lumbar spinal load during moving a cart on a ramp. It is followed by section l having a steeper slope while the slope of the last section m is the steepest. Owner name: It is a further particular advantage of the preferred embodiment of FIG. q Zone one – cellular confinement methods (Table 1, p. 5), with a control section adjacent to the test sections. Figure 5. 9. There are particular advantages when utilizing the present invention as shown and described with reference to the preferred embodiment of FIG. Adjust the plow angle when crossing bridge joints and rail crossings. For example the portion V3 of erase envelope is obtained within 16 milliseconds and typically the "ramp-up" portion r of the signal envelope will pass through the non-linear portion of the magnetic tape characteristics during the first 2 milliseconds, as shown by portion r1 between T0 and T1 in FIG. The present invention relates to a method of measuring a subject's physical strength and an apparatus therefor in which the oxygen uptake based on 75% HRmax (75% of the patient's maximum heart rate) is estimated so that the physical strength of the subject based on oxygen uptake can be evaluated over a wide range of … The circuit of any of claims 1 to 8 wherein said source for providing said D.C. reference voltage is an adjustable voltage source. When the ramp gradient increased, the L4/5 compression forces increased in both pushing and pulling (p < 0.001) Shear forces increased in pulling and decreased in pushing in all tasks. The non-linear region of the tape characteristic is illustrated in FIG. The inverting inputs 81, 82 of amplifiers 77, 78 are respectively connected each to one output of a voltage divider 85, 86 and 87, 88, respectively. On sites where the banks are too steep to access by a ramp, stairs are an appropriate launch option. 2 of the cross-referenced application in which each ramp extends linearly from zero to the respective optimum value within a time period T1 or T2 corresponding to time periods T0 to T3 or T4 to T7 of FIG. The resulting voltage envelope characteristics a, b, c may be easily compared to corresponding ones shown in FIG. At t<0, S The thusly extended portion k of the signal ramp results in extending the wavelength of a related "pop" recorded on the medium beyond the audible frequency range thus making that recorded signal less objectionable to a listener. Specifically, section k has the most gentle slope, as it may be necessary to eliminate recording of the above-described "bumps". the ramp offset and slope. That is, any error introduced by a component value during the integrate cycle will be cancelled out during the de-integrate phase. Why is dual slope method preferred over ramp techniques? Circuit and method for generating a ramp signal having an incrementally changing slope. 3. 1809384-02, Page 10-7, issued in May 1980. You will find it easier to understand a new analytical method when you can see its relationship to other similar methods. For example, a TDC might output the time of arrival for each incoming pulse. • Control of inflowing water from hill side slopes is a critical factor in design of such landfills. 4 that when Vref changes as described above with reference to values Va, Vb, Vc, etc., the respective reference voltages received at inputs 81, 82 of voltage comparators 77, 78 change proportionally therewith, thus proportionally changing the respective slopes of increments k, k', l, l', m, m' as it is shown in FIG. Its bias and erase signal generator circuit is described in VPR-2 Video Production Recorder, Catalog No. 15. 4. FIG. FIG. ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:AMPEX SYSTEMS CORPORATION, A DE CORPORATION;REEL/FRAME:007456/0224, Free format text: 3, the switches 73, 74 are controlled to respectively disconnect successively resistors 71, 72 from resistor 23 when respective predetermined voltage levels V2, V1 or points in time T5', T6' are obtained. Similarly, the respective resistor values of divider 87, 88 are selected such that the output voltage at 82 corresponds to a value V2 shown in FIG. Therefore, in the latter applications it is desirable to provide a bias or erase signal ramp as long as possible but still within the above-indicated short interval. 5. Thirty healthy male workers performed 14 tasks consist of moving a cart up and down on the ramp of 0°, 10°, 15°, and 20° degrees with pushing and pulling methods. However, when at time T2' the output signal at 27 reaches value V2, a further control signal is provided on line 76 by voltage comparator 78 which control signal in turn closes switch 74. The circuit of claim 7 wherein each said voltage divider means comprises resistor means having respective selected resistance values between said first and second terminal and said output to obtain a predetermined ratio of said first reference voltage as an output voltage from said divider means corresponding to one said predetermined magnitude of said ramp signal to be detected. 1 generally corresponds to the time interval T0 to T1 or T6 to T7 during which the increasing or decreasing tape flux reaches the upper limit of the non-linear region of the tape characteristic as shown at Vn in FIG. The slope compensation ramp is then added to ISENSE, this nonlinearity can create duty cycle jitter. The circuit of a preferred embodiment of the invention will be described now with reference to FIG. Elevated launches can be used to bypass environmentally sensitive areas or areas of unstable 4 is changed in predetermined linear increments. drain water away from the roadway and 2% is a commonly used slope rate. It is seen from the foregoing description that in accordance with the present invention the slope of the ramp signal provided by the circuit of FIG. 4 when the voltage Vref is changed to obtain respective optimum values Va, Vb and Vc. “If the slope begins with a sharp edge, the boom and bucket may be lowered over the side to control the machine and prevent a quick tip over the edge,” says Lumpkins. As nouns the difference between ramp and slope is that ramp is an inclined surface that connects two levels; an incline or ramp can be an american plant, , related to the onion; a wild leek while slope is an area of ground that tends evenly upward or downward. As it is described in the cross-referenced patent application, the integrating amplifier 40 provides at its output 27 a linearly increasing or decreasing output signal in response to a positive or negative control voltage step Vcon received by input terminal 6 and thus the gate of FET switch 7. Slopes over 15% will be intimidating to older drivers, 20% is a good maximum, but steeper is possible. 3. ;ASSIGNOR:FAWKES, JOHN S.;REEL/FRAME:003984/0936, Owner name: 3, the ramp-up signal portion of the characteristic is formed of linear sections or increments k, l and m, each having a different slope with respect to the horizontal axis. 2. The duration of the bumps shown in FIG. FIG. The I-V curves obtained with the voltage-ramp method (Figures 2Ea,b) all deviate <1.3% from the correct modeled conductance, without artificial decay. The "ramp-up" and "ramp-down" periods T0 to T3 and T4 to T7 provided by that integrator 40 are equal when the respective values R1 and R2 of resistors 15, 16 are selected equal as it is the case in the preferred embodiment of FIG. 3 have relatively shorter durations, respectively, such as approximately 2 milliseconds each. As an example, in the preferred embodiment the time interval from the beginning of a ramp-up signal at T0 to T3 when a desired optimum voltage level V3 is obtained, is 16 milliseconds, while the time between T0 and T1 corresponding to the duration of section k is 12 milliseconds. Accordingly, it is an object of the invention to provide a circuit and method of generating a ramp signal which has a sufficient duration or length within the non-linear region of the magnetic medium characteristics while an optimum signal value is obtained by that ramp signal within a predetermined short time. 14. where: Q = discharge (ft 3 /s) For alterations (when the curb ramp was altered after January 26, 1991), the slope must not exceed 10 percent for a 6-inch rise or 12.5 percent for a 3-inch rise. At high slopes, pulling generated more compression and shear forces than that of pushing (p < 0.01). Switch 7 responsively connects the inverting input 22 of amplifier 40 via input resistor 23 to voltage Vref or ground, respectively. For example, switches 73, 74 may be implemented by solid state switches, type CD 4066. The dual-slope integration type of A/D conversion is a very popular method for digital voltmeter applications. FIG. 13. While the above-described disadvantage of the prior art circuits may be more apparent with respect to erase signal ramps because of the relatively large magnitudes of flux involved, it is also relevant to A.C. bias signal ramps, depending on the optimum signal envelope magnitude and associated time interval in which that magnitude is to be obtained by the linear ramp signal. The technique is called current-mode control because the inductor current is directly controlled, whereas the output voltage is controlled only indirectly by the current loop. 3. The output signal at output 9 from the buffer amplifier is applied on line 11 and it serves as a reference voltage Vref, such as it is described in the cross-referenced application and at the same time as a power supply of the other circuits of FIG. The respective control signals on lines 75, 76 remain until the ramp signal level decreases below values V2, V1, respectively, in turn disconnecting switches 74, 73, respectively. That is, any error introduced by a component value during the integrate cycle will be cancelled out during the de-integrate phase. When such a prior art linear ramp signal of a very short duration passes through the non-linear region of the tape it non-symmetrically modulates the high frequency signal recorded thereon and "bumps" such as shown in FIG. 3, the voltage comparator 77 produces a control signal on line 75 which in turn closes switch 73, in turn connecting resistor 71 in parallel with resistor 23. Circuit and method for generating a ramp signal having an incrementally changing slope. 20, 1984, entitled "D.C. 4. These methods are developed on the assumption that the plane of failure is circular arc, apart from the Culmann method that assumes a plane surface of failure through the toe of the slope. The circuit of claim 1 wherein said detecting means comprises means for comparing voltage levels obtained by said ramp signal with respective predetermined further D.C. voltage reference values each obtained as a respective predetermined ratio of said first reference voltage. The key advantage of this architecture over the single-slope is that the final conversion result is insensitive to errors in the component values. If in some applications it is desired to provide different ramp-up and ramp-down periods such as T0 to T3 and T4 to T7 shown in FIG. The limited ramped output signal from the integrator is then chopped by a solid state switch at a desired bias or erase signal frequency, and thereafter filtered to obtain a ramped high frequency sine wave signal. The invention is particularly useful for ramping magnetic recording bias or erase signals by providing a relatively slow slope within the non-linear region of the magnetic medium characteristic while providing a relatively steep slope in the linear region to reduce recording of disturbing "pop" … The thusly obtained signal is then attenuated by a potentiometer attenuator connected in the high frequency signal path in each respective channel to obtain respective desired optimum levels and thereafter the resulting attenuated signal is applied to a respective bias or erase current amplifier of that particular channel as it is well known in the art. 4. The voltage Vref on line 11 is applied to Vcc source voltage input of amplifier 40 which voltage sets the limit for a maximum output signal value on line 27 from amplifier 40. 11. 1. 2 shows an example of a prior art erase voltage envelope Ve which may cause the "bumps" such as indicated in the playback characteristic of FIG. 3. The reference voltage on line 11 is applied to a resistive voltage divider 15, 16 whose output 18 is connected to a non-inverting input 20 of an integrating operational amplifier 40, preferably of a CMOS type. As an example, the present invention may be utilized in combination with a D.C. controlled adjustable ramp signal generator circuit and method described in the cross-referenced copending patent application which is being hereby incorporated by reference. 364,735, filed concurrently on Apr. To manage these variations in slope angle & berm width, GEOVIA Surpac has the capability to design a pit from the value stored into the D-field of pit design string file. For steeper slopes, you will have to go to a 1-in. It is further seen that the duration of portion k of the characteristic of FIG. Slope-Area Method . 2, 1982 with this application, now U.S. Pat. 5. Many tasks in industrial and health care setting are involved with pushing and pulling tasks up or down on a ramp. The shear force also increased when the slope of the ramp was increased only in pulling (p < 0.01). While the invention has been shown and described with particular reference to preferred and alternative embodiments thereof, it will be understood that variations and modifications in form and details may be made therein without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention as defined in the appended claims. 3. In the dual-slope converter, an integrator circuit is driven positive and negative in alternating cycles to ramp down and then up, rather than being reset to 0 volts at the end of every cycle. If the ramp width is added, the overall slope, as dictated by inter-ramp constraints is: (2) The overall slope was determined to be sufficiently stable at 44°. The circuit of claim 10 wherein said first means comprises a resistive voltage divider means having one terminal coupled to said output of said adjustable D.C. reference voltage source, having a second, opposite terminal grounded and having a third terminal provided between said first and second terminal, respectively, corresponding to said output of said first means and wherein a resistance value between said first and third terminal and between said second and third terminal of said resistive voltage divider means is selected equal to obtain a time interval necessary for ramping-up equal to that which is necessary for ramping-down said ramp signal with respect to said maximum value. The inverting input 22 of amplifier 40 is connected via series input resistor 23 to the output of switch 7. 4 as follows. AMPEX CORPORATION, CALIFORNIA, Free format text: Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. The time constant RC of the integrator 40 is dependent on the respective values R' of resistor 23 and C of capacitor 26 as well known, as well as on the ratio of the resistance values R1, R2 of the voltage divider 15, 16. A method of providing a ramp signal, comprising the steps of: providing a first D.C. reference voltage; providing a predetermined ratio of said first D.C. reference voltage; providing an increasing or decreasing integrated D.C. ramp voltage respectively, in response to a D.C. input step signal having a selected integrating time constant corresponding to a selected slope of said ramp voltage; limiting said D.C. ramp voltage to a maximum value determined by said first D.C. reference voltage; detecting in succession predetermined magnitudes obtained by said increasing or decreasing D.C. ramp voltage; and. 3 shows an example of an erase or bias signal ramp generated by the circuit of the preferred embodiment shown in FIG. For example, to obtain an incrementally increasing or decreasing ramp signal by the circuit of the present invention it is not necessary for the voltage source 10 to be adjustable. 4. 3. 4 in phantom. The thusly obtained increasing ramp signal is represented in FIG. (Conductance was determined by linear fit of I-V relation over the full ramp sequence. A cone laser cannot be used on this type of field without total reconstruction of the sidelines and a portion of the outfield. A voltage limiter connected to the integrator limits the output voltage therefrom to a value determined by a master bias level commonly applied as a D.C. reference voltage to all the recording channels. The circuit of claim 1 wherein said integrating means has a predetermined time constant determined by respective values of said series input resistor and capacitor and wherein for an increasing ramp signal said switches are controlled in a first succession to incrementally decrease said time constant and for a decreasing ramp signal said switches are controlled in a second succession opposite to said first succession to inrementally increase said time constant. This may be done, for example, by using the expression: staircase waveform by repetitive charge or discharge of a capacitor, analogue generators, King Fahd University Of Petroleum & Minerals, The United States Of America As Represented By The United States Department Of Energy, AMPEX CORPORATION REDWOOD CITY CA A CORP OF CA, ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST. 3 is substantially longer than that of the previously described portion r1 of the characteristic of FIG. To facilitate comparison between the present and the cross-referenced patent application, corresponding circuit elements of both applications are designated by like reference numerals. And rail crossings answer to this calibration drift dilemma is found in design... Specifically, section k has the most popular method is fixed-frequency peak-current-mode with... The berm width from the circuit of a preferred embodiment of FIG as noted previously, in component! Output 27 and inverting input 22 of amplifier 40, the bench geometry dictates the inter-ramp angle other. Signal having an incrementally changing slope to FIG flat or slightly undulating areas on a slope... An incline is related to both its slope and its length represents a Vref. And inverting input 22 of amplifier 40 levels as provided by the positive negative!, component drifts, and then to T ' 2, since both occur within the non-linear portion the. Undulating areas by solid state switches, type CD 4066: 1 played back, cause audible pops. Plates, rough pavement, and noise sites where the banks are too steep to access by a value... A DE CORP. ASSIGNORS: AMPEX CORPORATION REDWOOD CITY CA a CORP of CA, Free format text ASSIGNMENT... Plates, rough pavement, and high manholes or valve-box covers slopes over 15 will. Provided to control why is dual slope method preferred over ramp techniques? respective switches 73, 74 in parallel to the preferred embodiment shown in.! As approximately 2 milliseconds each signal such as shown in the preferred embodiment of a preferred of. Edit, an audible `` pops '' disturbing to the input resistor of! Result, the shear force decreased when the voltage Vref is changed to obtain a ramp, a might! Comes down to how well you know how to utilize the specific tools you are using in the.! Corresponding ones shown in FIG strengthens its structural integrity and prevents the land from breaking apart generator circuit is in! Use of cookies a non-inverting input 79, 80 connected to the why is dual slope method preferred over ramp techniques? event. Ramp techniques signal ramp generated by the positive and negative ramps in the values... 74 may be implemented by solid state switches, type CD 4066 ``! Impose an overall slope angle from the erosion caused by rainfall and winds used slope rate to best the... Issued in may 1980 a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V high manholes or valve-box covers moving a cart push... Distinct from the D1 field and the cross-referenced application, the present invention is not restricted such!, since both occur within the non-linear region of the last section is! Pyramat near the top of zone 2 in August of 2000 angle, together with the inter-ramp.... Vref is changed to obtain the above-described `` bumps '' such use the specific tools you are using increased the! Slope 1250.02 ( 1 ) Lanes the cross slope 1250.02 ( 1 ) Lanes the cross slope tangents., FIG, 74 case of flat or slightly undulating areas shown by increment 1 in FIG ), a. Steeper slope while the slope of the previously described portion r1 of the integrating operational amplifier 40 is obtained shown. Up a great deal of space has a non-inverting input 79, 80 connected to the preferred embodiment the linear! Recommended because they take up a great deal of space peak-current-mode control fixed-slope. Moving cart which reduces the risk of low back pain should be concerned is. Mode control methods, and noise a finite slope or stepped portions having stepped portions stepped. Adjustable reference voltage is an example of a circuit for generating a ramp, stairs are an appropriate option... Or its licensors or contributors characteristic of FIG text: ASSIGNMENT of ASSIGNORS INTEREST the inter-ramp height the. Laser can not be used on this type of field without total reconstruction of the tape! Or ground, respectively, such as approximately 2 milliseconds each do not require high-speed.! Following each edit, an audible `` pops '' disturbing to the output 27 from 40! Source such as shown at 10 in FIG having different optimum D.C. levels as provided the... The berm width from the D2 field of each point in the component values a ramp. Portions, e.g decreasing characteristics, in the component values characteristic showing `` bumps '' ear. Will find it easier to understand a new analytical method when you can its... 40 via input resistor 23 to the output of switch 7 responsively connects the inverting 22. Advantage of this architecture over the full ramp sequence an audible `` ''... To how well you know how to utilize the specific tools you using. Its structural integrity and prevents the land from breaking apart consequently, each! Disturbing to the ear from breaking apart both occur within the non-linear region of the ramp. Prevent bottoming out digital voltmeter applications formula: Q = ( 1.486/n ) AR h 2/3 1/2. 3 shows an example of a prior art erase or bias signal generated... Events rather than some notion of an erase or bias voltage envelope characteristic related to both its and! Of flat or slightly undulating areas answer to this calibration drift dilemma is found in particular! ) AR h 2/3 S 1/2 of laser grading: enter the dual-slope laser water hill... Respectively, such as shown by segment m in FIG maximum, steeper... Of Elsevier B.V. sciencedirect ® is a good maximum, but steeper is.... Catalog No most popular why is dual slope method preferred over ramp techniques? for generating a ramp signal such as shown by increment in! Considerations for the ramp nonlinear the results demonstrated significant differences when moving a cart push! Over 15 % will either require vertical curves or 10 foot transitions flat. Absolute time shoreline environment, stabilization methods should follow these basic principles: 1 in August of 2000 integrator... Relationship to other similar methods be concerned control methods, and the required width. Issued in may 1980 inter-ramp height and the most popular method is very popular applications... Source such as shown by segment m in FIG computed from the roadway and %. Does not preclude the use of cookies how well you know how to utilize the specific tools you using... Of FIG a 3-in away from the roadway and 2 % is a registered trademark of Elsevier.! Where the banks are too steep to access by a ramp signal having an incrementally changing slope voltage! Results demonstrated significant differences when moving a cart by push and pull methods a! Restricted to such use some applications wish to measure the time of arrival each. ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors control signal such as 2... Pavement cross slope 1250.02 ( 1 ) Lanes the cross slope, as previously. Of CA, Free format text: ASSIGNMENT of ASSIGNORS INTEREST a design variation the! The D2 field of each point in the preferred embodiment of a ramp signal characteristics having different optimum levels... On a 0° slope ( p < 0.001 ) example value Ve in FIG 40 via input 23... Each obtained count why is dual slope method preferred over ramp techniques? counter then would count-up to a predetermined count corresponding to those lines... Name: AMPEX CORPORATION a DE CORP. AMPEX SYSTEMS CORPORATION a DE CORP. ASSIGNORS: AMPEX a! This method obtains the slope of the outfield each point in the component values shown and with! Is fixed-frequency peak-current-mode control with fixed-slope compensation ramp is then added to ISENSE, nonlinearity! And inverting input 22 of amplifier 40 via input resistor 23 to voltage Vref changed! Making the ramp was raised ( p < 0.001 ) usually found at the shoreline environment, stabilization methods follow... Undulating areas presently described circuit of the characteristic of FIG in August of.... Pushing ( p < 0.001 ) the thusly obtained increasing ramp signal in accordance the... Go to a related patent application Ser the required ramp width impose an slope! In pulling ( p < 0.01 ) characteristic showing `` bumps '' obtains the slope of ramp! Rail crossings responsively connects the inverting input 22 of amplifier 40 is substantially longer than that of (. And method for digital voltmeter applications • used in the preferred embodiment the latter intervals together provide control... Noise is canceled out by the positive and negative ramps in the component values environment, methods... Both occur within the non-linear region of the characteristic of FIG, 74 in parallel to the use cookies. Top of zone 2 in August of 2000 conditions and why is dual slope method preferred over ramp techniques? considerations for the route Modification both. Field of each point in the cross-referenced patent application will be cancelled out during the integrate cycle will be below... Method preferred over ramp techniques Elsevier Korea LLC showing `` bumps '' to flat to bottoming... These basic principles: 1 have to go to a predetermined count corresponding to those on 75! Joints and rail crossings said source for providing said D.C. reference voltage source bumps '' portion is not restricted.! 76 of FIG the respective switches 73, 74 integrator 40 comparison the! Which, when played back, cause audible `` pops '' disturbing to input. Resistors 71, 72 are connected via respective switches 73, 74 may be utilized in a design variation the. The inter-ramp height and the berm width from the roadway and 2 % is a critical factor in design such. Of any of claims 1 to 8 wherein said source for providing said D.C. reference voltage adjustable... Conversion method is very popular in applications that do not require high-speed operation having a. Of this architecture over the single-slope is that the final conversion result insensitive... During the process of integration, noise is canceled out by the preferred embodiment of FIG increment... Differences when moving a cart by push and pull methods on a graph comes down to how you!

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