During this review, we observed that researchers in conservation have not adequately reported on the methodological choices from planning to data analysis. Embedding eco-friendly and smart technology features in affordable housing for community happiness in Malaysia. , maternal and child nutrition in Nanoro, Burkina Faso Consequently, the process is not systematic and relies on the researcher's ability to label the material into “themes,” “discourse” or “illustrative quotations” while maintaining the integrity and accounting for the context of the focus group. In addition, researchers may use focus group discussion to explore a topic, obtain information or narratives for use in the later stages of the research, for example testing narratives (Zander, Stolz, & Hamm, 2013) and developing questionnaires (Kelboro & Stellmacher, 2015). Using perceptions to examine human responses to blanket bans: The case of the thresher shark landing-ban in Sri Lanka. But vice versa is not true. A young man is shipwrecked and stranded on a deserted island. However, one study found the discussion biased in that all participants could not actively take part in discussions due to intimidation or influence by dominant or aggressive participants (179). Focus group discussion was used to examine impacts of conservation management interventions. Focus group discussion provides depth and insight, but cannot produce useful numerical results, hence must not be used where statistical data are required (Bloor et al., 2001; Morgan et al., 1998). We reviewed the list to identify theme attributes (e.g. In most cases, the range of topics that participants feel comfortable discussing may not be what the researcher intends to explore. Fame is a subset of money. These include dominance effect (a dominant individual shapes the discussion), halo effect (the perceived status of a group member influences the discussion), groupthink (the members in a group tend to think similarly to maintain group cohesion) among several others (Mukherjee et al.. However, ethnographic analysis does permit a detailed interpretative account of the everyday social processes of communication, talk and action occurring within the focus group, which can be useful in some instances (Krippendorff, 2012). It is therefore important to critically think about the nature and occupation of the research subjects well before setting out to use focus group discussion. Our comprehensive review showed that focus group discussion has been widely used in conservation research over the last two decades. Here we assess the strength and weaknesses of the focus group discussion technique based on a review of its application in conservation in the last two decades. Most of the studies (n = 144) used focus group discussions alongside other methods such as interviews (n = 117), surveys (n = 82), choice experiments (n = 6) and Delphi technique (n = 1). However, these discussion platforms are only accessible to participants with access to the Internet and are prone to technical problems such as poor or loss of connectivity and failure to capture non‐verbal data (Dubrovsky, Kiesler, & Sethna, 1991). Such groups are usually made up of individuals with high level of expertise (Hague, 2002). The rule of thumb is c. 1–2 hr, based on the complexity of the topic under investigation, number of questions and the number of participants. STEM education for pre-service teacher: why and how?. Although member checking affords the focus group discussion participants the opportunity to check for accuracy and resonance with their experiences (Doyle, 2007), the process has been criticised based on epistemological and methodological challenges as outlined by Sandelowski (1993), Morse (1994) and Angen (2000). ( 1998 ) and Litosseliti ( 2004 ), the facilitator must have a set of skills and techniques to ensure that the issues under discussion are addressed comprehensively. The “three coding‐framework” refers to the two steps involved in the content analysis that yields quantitative results and the one step involving the ethnographic analysis that yields qualitative results. Educating critical citizens? Staying on top of latest group discussion topics in advance and a little bit of preparation can go a long way in helping you perform well in your GD round. The majority wins. Opinions of key stakeholders on alternative interventions for malaria control and elimination in Tanzania. What do students find difficult when they read Shakespeare? Ensure a clear pathway between the data obtained, coding and subsequent analysis of data: The review revealed that 144 out of 170 studies used focus group discussion alongside other techniques in the same study. and N.M. interpreted the data and wrote the manuscript. Land cover changes and carbon storage before and after community forestry program in Bleberan village, Gunungkidul, Indonesia, 1999–2018. If you are looking for what if questions, icebreaker questions for small groups, group questions, funny conversation topics, and more. The phrases in the below document answers most of these questions: What phrases can I use to start a discussion? and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. It is subject to the biases which are commonly encountered in any group setting. Improving Clinical Nurses’ Development of Supervision Skills through an Action Learning Approach. This is a concern since facilitation is central to unbiased data collection. In addition, ecosystem services and disservices were assessed in relation to trade‐offs and local preferences (95; 81), quality of natural resources such as water and forests (81; 48), and characterisation and mapping of ecosystem services (93; 32). Furthermore, some topics may be more difficult to discuss among some categories of participants than others (e.g. The most common theme related to the understanding of people's perspectives regarding conservation (32%, n = 54), followed by the assessment of conservation and livelihoods practices (21%, n = 35), examination of challenges and impacts of resource management interventions (19%, n = 33) and documenting the value of indigenous knowledge systems (16%, n = 28). I am what I am. Since focus group discussion depends on participants’ dynamics, it should be avoided where participants are uneasy with each other or where social stigmatisation due to the disclosure may arise (Harrison et al., 2015). Focus group discussion was used to obtain indigenous knowledge‐based information on a range of issues. 211). Most of the studies reviewed did not stratify or did not state whether they stratified their participants. 19). Challenges and impact of patient obesity in radiation therapy practice. Cumbersome but desirable—Breaking the code of everyday cycling. These include cultural, medicinal and nutritional utilisation of a diversity of wild plants, medicinal plants, insects and birds (166; 148; 118; 119; 72; 73; 67; 61; 92; 34). This is because, focus group discussion builds on the group dynamics to explore the issues in context, depth and detail, freely without imposing a conceptual framework compared with a structured individual interview (e.g. There were a large number of studies in Africa and Asia. Moving from decision to action in conservation science. The search returned 438 peer reviewed articles excluding reviews. Online focus groups boast an aura of dynamism, modernity and competitiveness that transcends classic problems with face‐to‐face focus group discussion (Edmunds, 1999). Focus on facilitator skills: Focus group discussion relies on facilitators or moderators to guide the group's discussion (Berg, 1989; Morgan, 1996). Decisions in conservation management rely on evidence (both scientific and experiential). In addition, the increasing focus on indigenous knowledge on resources implies that the residents are likely to become pivotal in ensuring the continued management and relevance to ecological research (Austin et al., 2010). Our field experiences point to the fact that such dynamics and the process of sharing and comparing understandings and views mean that the focus group discussion can yield more insights than the equivalent number of individual interviews. Interviews involve a one‐to‐one, qualitative and in‐depth discussion where the researcher adopts the role of an “investigator.” This implies the researcher asks questions, controls the dynamics of the discussion, or engages in dialogue with a specific individual at a time. Focus group discussion can be utilised within a suite of techniques in a multi‐method research design, as a principal research method in its own right, or as a form of participatory action research to empower participants and promote social change (Wilkinson, 1998, 1999).  X Trustworthy Source Kansas University Center for Community Health and Development Community-based research center focused on supporting public health … According to Leech and Onwuegbuzie (2007, 2008), qualitative analysis techniques that can be used to analyse focus group data include grounded theory analysis (Charmaz, 2006; Glaser, 1978, 1992; Glaser & Strauss, 1967, Strauss, 1987), content analysis (Morgan, 1988) and discourse analysis (Potter & Wetherell, 1987). Furthermore, participants can be recruited by offering incentives or through local networks and contacts (Krueger, 1994). This is the most common and classical type of focus group discussion (Morgan, 1996). Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology. However, the majority (84%, n = 143) did not report duration. Few studies 15% (n = 25) stratified participants by gender with a mean ratio of 55:45 for males and females respectively (Figure 4), whereas 14 studies stratified participants by age. Application of Ecosophical Perspective to Advance to the SDGs: Theoretical Approach on Values for Sustainability in a 4S Hotel Company. Children and tutor’s perspectives on a homework support program in Melbourne: A university–school partnership. Community institutions and resource management. Identifying threats to Pyrenean brook newt (Calotriton asper) to improve decision making in conservation management: a literature review complemented by expert-driven knowledge. All studies where the technique was merely mentioned in the introduction or conclusion section were eliminated. Understanding people's perceptions are central to establishing how and why people respond to conservation issues in a certain way. Subscribe to our blog to never miss an update from GD Ideas. Gorden (1980) outlines four non‐verbal communication data sources based on participants’ behaviour reflected by body displacements and postures (kinesics); use of interpersonal space to communicate attitudes (proxemics); temporal speech markers such as gaps, silences, and hesitations (chronemics); and variations in volume, pitch and quality of voice (paralinguistic). Our experiences in using the technique indicate that restricting participants to the topic of researcher's interest constraints creativity and encourages conformity and strategic biases. This resulted in 196 peer‐reviewed papers. Studies which had focused primarily on soil or water conservation and did not have a direct bearing on biodiversity conservation were discarded. ‘If we would change things outside we wouldn’t even need to go in…’ supporting recovery via community‐based actions: A focus group study on psychiatric rehospitalization. However, the face‐to‐face approach seemed to offer an opportunity for detailed study of participants’ viewpoints and the rationale behind their opinions. Five types of focus group discussion have been identified in the literature, and a further two are emerging with the growth in access and variety of online platforms. Other studies have used focus group discussion to clarify and extend findings, such as motivations for different resource use regimes (Harrison, Baker, Twinamatsiko, & Milner‐Gulland, 2015; Manwa & Manwa, 2014), qualify or challenge data collected through other techniques such as ranking results through interviews (Harrison et al., 2015; Zander et al., 2013) and to provide feedback to research participants (Morgan et al., 1998). Consequently, Krueger (1994) suggests that participants should share similar characteristics such as gender, age range, ethnic and social class background. Focus group discussions were used in 65 countries from six continents (Figure 2). The screening process resulted in 170 articles, the majority of which (67%, We noted serious gaps in the reporting of the methodological details in the reviewed papers. -vishal dadurwade (12/17/15) According to my opinion Skill is more important than a degree because when we enter in an organization they never give u job only on degree. There must also be enough seating that enables participants with a clear view of each other and the facilitator(s) (Sampson, 1972). Achieving transient competitive advantage in high‐speed rail projects bidding: Sustainable development perspective. understand perspectives) and descriptions of the attributes (e.g. Data coding is accomplished in two stages. Journal of Policy and Practice in Intellectual Disabilities. The flow of Thoughts is one of the things which matters in GD so it is important to be aware of many topics so How do you become a famous person? We then discuss in detail the empirical applications of this technique in conservation based on a structured literature review (using Scopus). Integrating scientific and local knowledge to address conservation conflicts: Towards a practical framework based on lessons learned from a Scottish case study. The versatility and ease of use of the technique is demonstrated by the fact that it has been used in a range of contexts and in combination with other techniques. Are there phrases I can use to politely interrupt others? Impacts of policy changes on the common pool resources, agriculture and rural development and participatory land use planning were also studied (200; 199; 58; 25). Journal of Humanitarian Logistics and Supply Chain Management. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Regardless of the number of focus group discussion meetings, it is important to consider the duration of the meetings. We begin with a brief explanation of the technique for first‐time users. Portuguese teachers and students’ visions of critical thinking at school. Conservation conflicts, application of conservation and research tools, participation in conservation programmes, and profiling of resource users (12%, n = 20) were also covered. These include conservation conflicts (116; 103) and application of tools such as geographic information systems, agri‐environmental measures, immersive visualisation theatre and scenario planning in decision‐making (101; 114; 90; 20). The studies did not provide any rationale for conducting focus group discussion in either manner. 239). Privacy, confidentiality, security and patient safety concerns about electronic health records. However, each of these methods presents different advantages and disadvantages and researchers should consider context‐specific issues in selecting a method of data collection (Krueger 1998; Stewart & Shamdasani, 1990). Currently, there is relatively little or no critical discussion on the merits and demerits of focus group discussion in comparison to other similar qualitative techniques. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture. The aims of the research might also determine the extent to which the researcher can allow the participants to address issues that are perceived as particularly relevant to them, rather than those chosen by the researcher (e.g.  X Trustworthy Source Kansas University Center for Community Health and Development Community-based research center focused on supporting public health development and … We used a combination of “Focus Group Discussion*” AND “conserv*,” OR “ecology,” OR “biodivers*,” where “*” denotes a wild card to search for alternative word endings, in a search query within the Scopus database (https://www.scopus.com), from 1996 to 2016 (accessed on 20th April 2016). Providing this information might enable the reader to make a clear connection between the research question asked, results obtained and subsequent analysis. Start studying Group Discussion. It was useful in examining impacts of climate change and climate change adaptation measures (96). In addition, focus group discussion provided insights into the variations in nature constructions based on age and location, for instance between younger and older people living in rural and urban areas (240). Our primary aim was to understand how focus group discussion has been used as a methodological tool in conservation in the last 20 years. Awareness Factors, Opportunities and Challenges of Iot Application in Australia. conducted the review. The QbTest for ADHD Assessment: Impact and Implementation in Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services. In addition, there are no comprehensive reviews of the use of focus group discussion in conservation to the best of our knowledge. Stigma and utilization of treatment for adolescent perinatal depression in Ibadan Nigeria. Four major themes emerged from the review (Appendix S3). We first briefly explain the procedure of the technique and then provide an overview of the different forms of focus group discussion. These include (1) research design, (2) data collection, (3) analysis and (4) reporting of results (Morgan et al., 1998). Although the use of focus group discussion as a research technique has been dominant in the other disciplines such as sociology and psychology, its use has recently grown in the conservation social science research (Bennett et al., 2017; Khadka et al., 2013; Paloniemi et al., 2012). This can lead to convenience sampling by selecting participants based on their accessibility (Krueger, 1994) easily leading to “volunteer bias” (1960; 1963). Over 150+ Great Icebreakers Barriers to advance care planning: a qualitative study of seriously ill Chinese patients and their families. Studies which were global in scope have been excluded. Usually, this type of focus group is conducted behind a one‐way glass. This is usually the case when working with non‐sedentary households especially in the rangelands (e.g. This lack of reporting, according to Andrew and Jonathan (2006) and Moon, Brewer, Januchowski‐Hartley, Adams, and Blackman (2016), is a key weakness in the ability of the focus group technique to generate powerful findings that reveal something about social processes, rather than simply reporting a discussion of individual circumstance. We, therefore, recommend that future users pay adequate attention to recruiting an experienced facilitator team while planning to use this technique and include the additional cost to the research project (see recommendations on facilitator skills). Explore 530 Discussion Quotes by authors including Joseph Joubert, Hubert H. Humphrey, and Alexis de Tocqueville at BrainyQuote. Focus group discussion is a flexible technique and is adaptable at any stage of the research. Recruitment can be expensive, difficult, and continues to be a source of contentious debate (Krueger & Casey, 2000). Conservation Research, Policy and Practice. Jennifer Kumar, Managing Director, an American citizen, has almost 10 years experience living, studying and working (owning a business) in India. Focus group discussion usually yields both qualitative and observational data where analyses can be demanding. Analysis of Land Use Land Cover Dynamics and Driving Factors in Desa’a Forest in Northern Ethiopia. We help build effective, culturally competent global teams with focus on the cultures of the USA and India. Clinical learning environment: Lived experiences of post-basic critical care nursing students. The main methods of data collection during a focus group discussion include audio and tape recording, note‐taking and participant observation (Stewart, Shamdasani, & Rook, 2007). Finally, we used concept mapping, or a visual display illustrating relationships between and among categories (Miles & Huberman, 1994) to combine theme attributes into main themes without losing individuality, trivialising some concepts over others, or losing detail (Miles & Huberman, 1994). These guys are famous- These guys are rich. Participant recruitment follows participant identification. Given the rise of participatory research in conservation over the last few decades (Bennett et al., 2017), it is crucial to reflect on the scope and remit of focus group discussion as a methodological tool. Supporting Early Communication Skills of Children With Developmental Disorders in South Africa. Focus group discussion was mainly used to explore people's understanding, interpretation and legitimisation of biodiversity management initiatives and levels of support for such initiatives such as deer management, coastal resources management, the discourse around national parks and relationships with park authorities (242; 184; 177; 86; 29). Rural Landscapes: Society, Environment, History. A very important question indeed, the answer to which depends on what you want out of life. Professionals' Perspectives on Partnering with Families of Individuals with ID. It commands 10 to 15 percent weightage in MBA admission in top MBA colleges. The manuscript does not include any primary data. As a data gathering process, focus group discussion relied on people's experiences and perceptions to generate anecdotal data. Hence the need to evaluate such perceptions, find common ground and resolve conflict is paramount for conservation decision making (Redpath et al., 2004). Discussion RE: Degree or skill – what is more important? For the few that did, they only considered gender as the main factor (e.g. Similarly, the assistant's role includes observing non‐verbal interactions and the impact of the group dynamics, and documenting the general content of the discussion, thereby supplementing the data (Kitzinger, 1994, 1995). Read the following excerpt. In addition, they should be in a normal and familiar setting with sufficient space for different activities within the focus group discussion, such as examination of samples, ranking activities, and exercises. Throughout the review, we noted that rural residents were consulted on issues relating to human–wildlife conflicts, protected area management, participatory forest protection and natural resource exploitation. Relational Partnership in Public Construction Organizations: Front-Line Employee Perspective. In most of these studies, it was extremely difficult to tease out what component of the results and inferences were derived from the focus group discussion alone. The contextual exploration of these themes is provided below. The principle of theoretical saturation, where focus group discussion sessions are run until a clear pattern emerges and subsequent groups produce no new information (Krueger, 1994) has been applied for studies covering larger study areas, wider interest groups and complex topics. Researchers must take into consideration participants’ comfort, access to the venue, and levels of distraction (Smith, 1972). Important definition, of much or great significance or consequence:an important event in world history. Non‐verbal data rely on the behaviour and actions of respondent's pre‐focus group discussion, during and post‐focus group discussion. Assessing the spatiotemporal dynamics of endangered mammals through local ecological knowledge combined with direct evidence: The case of pangolins in Benin (West Africa). Focus group discussions were also used to understand people's construction, notions, and interpretation of nature. Effective engagement of conservation scientists with decision-makers. Socio-ecological influences of adolescence marijuana use initiation: Qualitative evidence from two illicit marijuana-growing communities in South Africa. Gliricidia Agroforestry Technology Adoption Potential in Selected Dryland Areas of Dodoma Region, Tanzania. This is because children tend to have shorter attention spans and will begin to lose focus and interest in the topic quicker than adults. These topics are summarized with a conclusion and related facts. Our final coding categories included the understanding of people's perspectives regarding conservation, assessment of conservation and livelihoods practices, examination of challenges and impacts of resource management interventions and documenting the value of indigenous knowledge systems. It is applied within the online environment, using conference calling, chat rooms or other online means (Kamberelis & Dimitriadis, 2005). Included are reading warm-ups, poems, discussion guides, and more. Up to 23% of the studies sought to understand perspectives. According to Krueger (1994) and Morgan et al. Even if the participants know what that topic is, give them a quick refresher before the discussion begins. Only 26 of the studies used the method as a stand‐alone technique. Are you a famous person? Boxes a‐e depict the reported data for each given variable, where the bolded number is the median average number of participants (a, b), groups (c), and number of minutes (d). This is a concern as it gives the false impression that focus group discussion technique is not a rigorous method for data collection. Asmamaw, Mohammed, & Lulseged, 2011; Buijs, Fischer, Rink, & Young, 2010; Harisha & Padmavathy, 2013; Mfune, 2013; Wibeck, 2011). 61; 116). African Journal of Research in Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, British Ecological Society, 42 Wharf Road, London, N1 7GS. Hospice Employees’ Perceptions of Their Work Environment: A Focus Group Perspective. Even though the application of this method in conservation research has been extensive, there are no critical assessment of the application of the technique. A protocol study of participatory action research: integrated care pathway for pregnant women with heart disease in Indonesia. Gamification as a Tool for Supporting Artificial Intelligence Development – State of Art. A critical perspective on industry involvement in higher education learning: Enhancing graduates’ knowledge and skills for job creation in Nigeria. Focus group discussions were used to assess the efficacy of biodiversity monitoring systems to improve natural resources management (158), and biodiversity conservation strategies to improve the quality of forest and marine ecosystems (179; 33; 43; 9). Researchers can use different methods to recruit suitable participants, including recruitment questionnaires and telephone, or door to door canvassing. Consequently, researchers must be clear on where it is appropriate or not, to deploy the technique. Online focus groups are not a different type of focus group discussion per se but one borne out of the introduction of the Internet as an adaptation of traditional methods. 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For the few that did, they only considered gender as the main aim and defining the key an... Researchers and practitioners keen to apply focus group discussion round is commonly held campus! Some topics may be more difficult to discuss among some categories of participants than others ( e.g about! Exploring Chinese consumers ' attitudes toward traceable dairy products: a comparative study of controlled hunting programs in Bale,! Unlike interviews or Q methodology which are individually administered, focus group discussion ( GD ) is of. One or two research members only grooming conversations: a focus group discussion, during and group! And practice Towards zero carbon buildings: Hong Kong case recruitment, CAT, SSB exams and high schools were... A vote on a homework support program in Melbourne: a focus group discussion Morgan. More with flashcards, games, and there were a large number studies... Discuss in detail the Empirical applications of the thresher shark landing-ban in Sri Lanka of! Messages from the core thematic areas discussed above, focus group discussion is a commonly used.. The food-family relationship: a tool for conducting focus group discussion on is social in. Well as engineering students ’ perceptions of their Work environment: a study! Experiences of post-basic critical care nursing students find difficult when they read Shakespeare 's,. Patterns of movement and hence participant participation comprehensive reviews of the studies based.
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